Musculoskeletal health in exercising male and female individuals requires proper nutrition to allow for physiological adaptations and injury prevention. The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a well-described condition involving three interrelated conditions of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health. The 2014 position statement on the Triad includes guidelines for providers to determine safety in sports participation based on risk assessment score. Additionally, a new concept of relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) proposes that both male and females can experience negative health consequences involving multiple organ systems resulting from low energy intake. Our session will provide an overview of both Triad and RED-S and discuss proper screening and management of athletes and active individuals, taking into account sex-specific differences to optimize health.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand common sex-specific risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in athletes.
  • Describe the concepts of Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports.
  • Explain the role of risk factor screening to guide management and return to play for athletes.