Physiatrists often encounter painful foot conditions attributed to a wide spectrum of pain generators of musculoskeletal or neurovascular structures. Physical examination of foot and ankle poses challenges to trainees in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) due to several reasons: close proximity of anatomic structures in foot and ankle, complex biomechanics potentially predisposing or aggravating pathologies, and relative lack of exposure to foot disorders compared to other major joint disorders. Ultrasonography (US) may aid the diagnostic process for painful foot conditions as an adjunct to the physical examination. Ultrasonography can also facilitate resident education in this process by providing immediate feedback on precise palpation skills based on surface anatomy. However, our recent survey showed that trainees feel least comfortable in performing US of foot and ankle among major joints. In addition, less than 50 % of residents identified structures of foot and ankle correctly. In this hands-on workshop, we intend to review the palpation based ultrasonography (US) of foot and ankle, current challenges in resident training based on data, and educational methods how to overcome these challenges.

Learning Objectives

  • Obtain the key history for patients with foot pain which will help clinicians to make accurate diagnosis.
  • Identify structures on hands on palpation which will guide ultrasonographic evaluation and sonoanatomy for normal structures.
  • Correlate the clinical evaluation and abnormal ultrasonographic findings of common MSK foot conditions.

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